Rabu, 12 Oktober 2011

McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing)/ Northrop F/A-18 Hornet Multi-Role Fighter

   


Deskripsi:

F-18 Hornet dibuat berdasarkan purwarupa Northrop YF-17 Cobra. YF-17 dikembangkan untuk berkompetisi dengan F-16 pada Lightweight Fighter Competition AU AS pada 1970an. Walaupun akhirnya AU AS lebih memilih F-16, AL AS merasa bahwa konsep YF-17 menawarkan potensi yang lebih besar sebagai pengganti dari pesawat tempur A-7 Corsair. Northrop dan McDonnell Douglas setuju untuk melakukan produksi bersama versi F-18 untuk AL dan sebuah varian serang A-18 untuk marinir, tetapi kemudian keduanya dikombinasikan menjadi pesawat multi-misi F/A-18 Hornet.

Untuk menjaga tujuannya sebagai pesawat multi-peran, pada jantung F-18 terdapat radar Hughes multi-mode yang mempunyai efektifitas yang sama dalam misi udara-ke-udara dan udara-ke-darat. Dikombinasikan dengan sistem avionic canggih, display kokpit, mesin yang kuat, "excellent high angle-of attack aerodynamics" dan persenjataan jarak-jauh, F-18 melampaui harapan AL dan Marinir AS dalam hal akurasi, manuverabilitas, dan efektifitas keseluruhan. F-18 berhasil beroperasi dengan AL dan Korps Marinir pada pertengahan 1980an sebagai pengganti A-7 dan F-4 Phantom II.

Produksi kemudian berubah untuk mengupgrade model F/A-18C tempat duduk-tunggal dan F/A-18D tempat duduk-ganda. Walaupun secara eksternal tidak dapat dibedakan, dua varian baru F-18 mempunyai beberapa pengembangan pada sistem avionic untuk meningkatkan kemampuan serang malam hari. Sementara F-18B hanya merupakan pesawat trainer, kursi belakang pada F-18D dilengkapi dengan display multi-fungsi dan stik-samping kontroler senjata yang membuat F-18 dapat berperan sebagai kontroler udara depan yang membimbing pesawat lain ke target pada pertempuran.

Model F/A-18C/D dihentikan produksinya pada akhir 1990an, digantikan oleh F/A-18E dan F/A-18F Super Hornet. Rencana saat ini, F-18A/B akan tetap beroperasi dengan AL AS sampai sekitar 2015, sementara F-18C/D akan dipensiunkan pada 2020. F-18 juga membuat beberapa konsumen dari berbagai AU asing.



HISTORY:
First Flight: (F-18A) 18 November 1978; (F-18C) 3 September 1986; (F-18D) 6 May 1988
Service Entry: (F-18A) 7 January 1983; (F-18D) November 1989
CREW: (F-18A/C) one: pilot; (F-18D) two: pilot, weapon systems officer

ESTIMATED COST: $35 million [2003$]

AIRFOIL SECTIONS:
Wing Root: NACA 65A005 mod
Wing Tip: NACA 65A003.5 mod

DIMENSIONS:
Length: 56.00 ft (17.07 m)
Wingspan: 37.50 ft (11.43 m)
Height: 15.25 ft (4.66 m)
Wing Area: 400 ft2 (37.16 m2)
Canard Area: not applicable

WEIGHTS:
Empty: 23,050 lb (10,455 kg)
Normal Takeoff: 36,710 lb (16,6500 kg) [fighter mission]; 49,225 lb (22,330 kg) [attack mission]
Max Takeoff: 56,000 lb (25,400 kg)
Fuel Capacity: internal: 10,860 lb (4,925 kg); external: 6,730 lb (3,055 kg)
Max Payload: 15,500 lb (7,030 kg)

PROPULSION:
Powerplant: two General Electric F404-400 afterburning turbofans
Thrust: 32,000 lb (142.4 kN) with afterburner

PERFORMANCE:
Max Level Speed: at altitude: 1,190 mph (1,915 km/h) at 40,000 ft (12,190 m), Mach 1.8; at sea level: unknown
Initial Climb Rate: 45,000 ft (13,715 m) / min
Service Ceiling: 50,000 ft (15,240 m)
Endurance: unknown
Range: fighter mission: 800 nm (1,480 km); attack mission: 1,150 nm (2,130 km)
ferry: 1,800 nm (3,335 km)
g-Limits: unknown

ARMAMENT:

Gun: one 20-mm M61A1 Vulcan cannon (570 rds)
Stations: seven external hardpoints and two wingtip rails
Air-to-Air Missile: AIM-7 Sparrow, AIM-9 Sidewinder, AIM-120 AMRAAM, AIM-132 ASRAAM
Air-to-Surface Missile: AGM-45 Shrike, AGM-62 Walleye, AGM-65 Maverick, AGM-84 Harpoon, AGM-84 SLAM, AGM-84 SLAM-ER, AGM-88 HARM, AGM-123 Skipper, AGM-154 JSOW
Bomb: GBU-10/12/24/51 Paveway laser-guided, GBU-15 EO-guided, GBU-29/30/31/32/35 JDAM, B-57/61 nuclear, Mk 82/83/84 GP, Mk 20 Rockeye, BLU-107 Durandal, CBU-59 cluster
Other: ECM pods, rocket pods

KNOWN VARIANTS:
YF-17 Cobra: Northrop's entry in the USAF Lightweight Fighter competition, although not selected, US Navy evaluation of the design led to the F/A-18 Hornet
F/A-18A: First production model; 371 built
AF-18A: One-seat fighter purchased by Australia, based on the F-18A but currently being upgraded to F-18C standard to serve until at least 2011; 57 built
ATF-18A: Two-seat trainer for Australia, very similar to the F-18B; 18 built
CF-18A or CF-188A: One-seat fighter purchased by Canada, based on the F-18A but fitted with a spotlight for identifying targets at night, a new ILS, and able to carry LAU-5003 rocket pods, Canada plans to keep its aircraft in service until 2017; 98 built
EF-18A or C-15: One-seat fighter purchased by Spain, based on the F-18A but being upgraded to near F-18C standard; 60 built
RF-18A: Reconnaissance model, few built and most transferred to research duties with the US Navy and NASA
F/A-18B or TF/A-18A: Two-seat trainer; 40 built
CF-18B or CF-188B: Two-seat trainer for Canada; 40 built
EF-18B or CE-15: Two-seat trainer for Spain; 12 built
F/A-18C: Upgraded one-seat model able to carry the AIM-120 AMRAAM and AGM-65 Maverick, also upgraded with new avionics, a new ejection seat, and small strakes on the LERXs to reduce buffet on the tailfins; 355 built
KF-18C: One-seat fighter purchased by Kuwait, based on the F-18C; 32 built
F/A-18D: Two-seat night attack fighter for the US Marines, includes the same avionic upgrades as the F-18C
KAF-18D: Two-seat trainer for Kuwait; 8 built
F/A-18E/F: Significantly upgraded Super Hornet models with lengthened fuselage and enlarged wings
Hornet 2000: MDD proposal for an advanced Hornet with enlarged wing and tail surfaces, longer fuselage, new engines, and an improved cockpit; presumably led to Super Hornet 'E' and 'F' models

KNOWN COMBAT RECORD:
Libya - Operation El Dorado Canyon (USN, 1986)
Iraq - Operation Desert Storm (USN, USMC, Canada, 1991)
Iraq - Operation Southern Watch (USN, USMC, 1991-2003)
Bosnia - Operation Deliberate Force (USN, USMC, Canada, Spain, 1995)
Iraq - Operation Desert Fox (USN, 1998)
Kosovo - Operation Allied Force (USN, Canada, Spain, 1999)
Afghanistan - Operation Enduring Freedom (USN, USMC, 2001-present)
Iraq - Operation Iraqi Freedom (USN, USMC, Australia, 2003-present)
KNOWN OPERATORS:
Australia (Royal Australian Air Force)
Canada (Canadian Armed Forces, Air Command)
Finland, Suomen Ilmavoimat (Finnish Air Force)
Kuwait, al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Kuwaitiya (Kuwaiti Air Force)
Malaysia, Tentera Udara Diraja Malaysia (Royal Malaysian Air Force)
Spain, Ejército del Aire Española (Spanish Air Force)
Switzerland, Schweizer Luftwaffe (Swiss Air Force)
United States (US Marine Corps)
United States (US Navy)
United States (NASA)

Sebelumnya diposting pada 10 Juni 2008 di www.bluefame.com

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