Rabu, 12 Oktober 2011

General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin) F-16 Fighting Falcon Multi-Role Fighter



Deskripsi:

Dianggap oleh kebanyakan orang sebagai pesawat tempur tebaik pada masanya, F-16 merupakan salah satu desain pesawat tempur paling popular di dunia. F-16 pada awalnya dibuat di bawah program Pesawat Tembur Berbobot Ringan (Light Weight Fighter=LWF) pada awal 1970an yang mencari suku cadang yang lebih murah bagi F-15 untuk meningkatkan manuverabilitas dab misi serang taktis. Terangsang oleh ketertarikan negara lain pada produksi model ini, LWF dirubah menjadi program Air Combat Fighter (ACF) dan menjadi kompetisi "fly-off" antara General Dynamics YF-16 dan Northrop's YF-17. General Dinamics kemudian menjadi pemenang kompetisi itu pada 1975 dan mendapatkan kontrak untuk memproduksi F-16. AU AS berencana untuk membeli sampai 650 pesawat sebagai pengganti F-105 dan sebagian F-4, sementara beberapa sekutu NATO membeli F-16 sebagai pengganti F-104.

Walaupun sebenarnya pesawat ini dirancang sebagai pesawat serang darat (ground attack) dengan kemampuan sekunder pertahanan udara, ternyata F-16 kemudian diluncurkan sebagai pesawat multi-peran. Desainnya menggunakan sayap ruang variable (variable chamber wings) dan "leading edge strakes" untuk menghasilkan daya angkat yang lebih tinggi dan menghindari "root stall" walaupun pada "high angles of attack". Sebagai tambahan, penggunaan sistem kontrol "fly-by-wire" yang dapat membelokkan permukaan kontrol jauh lebih cepat dari pada pilot membuat F-16 mempunyai manuverabilitas yang luar biasa. F-16 juga dilengkapi dengan peralatan avionic canggih dan beban persenjataan yang besar.

F-16 sampai sekarang tetap mengalami update dan pengembangan pada model produksinya. Evolusi bertahap pada kemampuan pesawat ditunjukkan dengan sebuah seri "blok numbers" yang melakukan upgrade software, sistem persenjataan, struktur dan sistem lain untuk menggantikan peralatan yang usang. Model produksi F-16A/B awal terdiri dari Blok 10 dan 15 yang menampilkan pengembangan struktur, radar baru dan penambahan daya angkut senjata.

Pengembangan besar juga terjadi dengan peluncuran F-16C/D yang mencakup seri Blok 25, 30/32 dan 40/42. Upgrade dalam model ini termasuk mesin baru, radar yang lebih baik dengan kemampuan serangan malam presisi, dan kompabilitas dengan peralatan canggih yang selalu berkembang seperti "senjata pintar". Model akir pesawat ini yang dibeli oleh AS menggunakan Blok 50/52 dengan pengembangan untuk melakukan "tekanan hebat" (suppression) pada misi pertahanan udara musuh.

Walaupun tidak ada lagi produksi untuk AS, F-16 terus dibuat untuk model ekspor. Model terbarunya adalah F-16E/F Block 60 yang dibuat untuk Uni Emirat Arab. Seri ini mempunyai radar AESA dan kapasitas bahan bakar yang lebih besar untuk meningkatkan jarak jangkau dan daya tahan (endurance).

Vesatilitas, kemampuan dan harganya yang relative rendah membuat F-16 menjadi pesawat yang dipakai secara luas di dunia barat sejak F-86. Lebih dari 4.000 F-16 telah dibuat untuk 24 negara. F-16 telah mengalami banyak pertempuran, paling terkenal yaitu di Timur Tengah ketika F-16 bertempur di atas Lebanon dan Irak. F-16 milik Pakistan juga telah disibukkan dengan menembak jatuh beberapa pesawat Soviet selama Perang Afghan 1980an dan sering kali bertempur dengan pesawat milik India.

Produksi berlanjutan dan usaha upgrade terus-menerus menjamin F-16 tetap beroperasi dengan baik pada abad ke-21. AS berencana memakai F-16 sampai 2025, hingga pesawat ini digantikan oleh F-35 (JSF). Sebagian besar konsumen F-16 juga diharapkan akan mengganti F-16 mereka menjadi F-35 pada dua dekade mendatang.



HISTORY:
First Flight: (YF-16) 2 February 1974; (F-16A) 8 December 1976
Service Entry: 17 August 1978

CREW: (F-16A/C) one: pilot; (F-16B/D) two: pilot, instructor

ESTIMATED COST: (F-16A/B) $14.6 million [1998$]; (F-16C/D) $18.8 million [1998$]

AIRFOIL SECTIONS:
Wing Root: NACA 64A204
Wing Tip: NACA 64A204

DIMENSIONS:
Length: 49.33 ft (15.03 m)
Wingspan: 31.00 ft (9.45 m)
Height: 16.33 ft (5.09 m)
Wing Area: 300.0 ft² (27.88 m²)
Canard Area: not applicable

WEIGHTS:
Empty: 18,725 lb (8,495 kg)
Normal Takeoff: 23,765 lb (10,780 kg)
Max Takeoff: 37,500 lb (17,010 kg)
Fuel Capacity: internal: 7,160 lb (3,255 kg); external: 6,950 lb (3,160 kg) in two 370 gal (1,400 L) and one 300 gal (1,135 L) tanks; 8,015 lb (3,645 kg) in two 600 gal (2,270 L) tanks
Max Payload: 17,200 lb (7,800 kg) [normal]; 20,450 lb (9,275 kg) [theoretical limit]

PROPULSION:
Powerplant: one General Electric F100-100 or one Pratt & Whitney F100-220 afterburning turbofan
Thrust: 29,100 lb (129.4 kN) with afterburner

PERFORMANCE:
Max Level Speed: at altitude: 1,350 mph (2,175 km/h) at 40,000 ft (12,190 m), Mach 2.05; at sea level: 915 mph (1,460 km/h), Mach 1.2
Initial Climb Rate: 50,000 ft (15,239 m) / min
Service Ceiling: 50,000 ft (15,239 m)
Range: typical: 540 nm (1,000 km); ferry: 2,100 nm (3,890 km)
g-Limits: +9.0

ARMAMENT:
Untuk melihat daya angkut senjata lengkap F-16 klik di sini
Gun: one 20-mm M61A1 Vulcan cannon (511 rds)
Stations: seven to nine external hardpoints and two wingtip rails
Air-to-Air Missile: AIM-7 Sparrow/Skyflash, AIM-9 Sidewinder, AIM-120 AMRAAM, AIM-132 ASRAAM, Magic II, MICA, Python 3
Air-to-Surface Missile: AGM-45 Shrike, AGM-65 Maverick, AGM-84 Harpoon, AGM-88 HARM, AGM-119 Penguin, Wasp, AS.30L
Bomb: GBU-10/12/24 Paveway laser-guided, GBU-15, B43 nuclear, Mk 82/83/84 GP, Mk 20 Rockeye, BLU-107 Durandal, CBU-52/58/71/87/89/97 cluster, BL-755, BLU-109, Mk 36 Destructor
Other: ECM pods, navigation pods, targeting pods, rocket pods, gun pods, autonomous free-flight dispenser system

KNOWN VARIANTS:
YF-16: Purwarupa untuk pengujian program Light Weight Fighter; 2 built
F-16 FSD: Pesawat purwarupa yang telah dikembangkan secara penuh; 6 single-seat and 2 two-seat models built
F-16A: Model pesawat untuk produksi yang memkai Blok seri 1 sampai 20; 674 built for USAF
F-16B: Pesawat model 2-tempat duduk untuk trainer; 121 built for USAF
Block 1/5/10: Blok produksi awal dari F-16A/B dengan perbedaan struktur yang kecil diantara mereka.; 94 Block 1, 197 Block 5, and 312 Block 10 planes built
Block 15: F-16A/B yang diupdate dengan penambahan dua "pylons" di bawah sayapnya, sistem komunikasi baru dan stabiliser horizontal yang lebih lebar; 983 built
Block 15 OCU: Operational Capability Upgrade dengan mesin baru, penambahan berat takeoff, pengembangan kokpit, sistem avionik yang lebih canggih, kompabilitas dengan misil Maverick, Penguin dan AMRAAM; 214 built and some Block 10 airframes converted
F-16 ADF: Air Defense Fighter berdasar pada Blok 15 tetapi didesain untuk unit US Air National Guard dengan radar yang telah diupgrade dan sistem avionik yang telah dipercanggih; 270 converted
Block 20: F-16A/B Block 15 OCU planes purchased by Taiwan but updated with a new radar, better mission compuyers, and incororating most of the Block 50/52 improvements; 150 converted
F-16/79: Proposed reduced-cost, reduced-capability version of the F-16A/B intended for export, marketed to several countries but its rejection led to the decision to sell the standard F-16 abroad; 1 built
F-16A®: F-16A aircraft of the Netherlands and Belgium modified to carry tactical reconnaissance pods
RF-16A: F-16A aircraft of Denmark modified to carry reconnaissance pods; 10 converted
F-16 MLU
F-16AM/F-16BM: Series of Mid Life Update programs to upgrade the software and avionics of F-16A/B airframes bringing them to a near F-16C/D Block 50/52 standard, applied to the fleets of Belgium, Chile, Denmark, Jordan, the Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, and Portugal
A-16: Proposed close air support derivative with structural improvements to carry a 30-mm cannon and 7.62-mm minigun pods on the wing seen as a replacement for the A-10; 2 prototypes converted from Block 15 airframes
F/A-16: F-16A/B Block 10 airframes modified to carry a 30-mm GAU-13 cannon in a centerline pod but the vibrations from the cannon were so severe as to make aiming impractical; 24 converted
F-16C: Upgraded one-seat fighter model with improved ground attack capability provided by a LANTIRN system and new ECM equipment, includes Blocks 25 through 50/52
F-16D: Two-seat trainer based on the F-16C
Block 25: Introduced a new radar with precision night-attack capability as well as an enhanced engine, new computer systems, cockpit displays, and other avionics improvements; 209 built
Block 30/32: Block 30 carries General Electric F110 engines while Block 32 is fitted with the Pratt & Whitney F100, introduced the LITENING targeting pod, compatibility with HARM and AMRAAM missiles, better navigation systems
F-16C++: Unofficial designation used for the final Block 30/32 aircraft
F-16 Recce: US airframes modified to carry multi-sensor reconnaissance pods on the centerline, usually fitted to Block 25 and 30 aircraft of the US Air National Guard
F-16N
TF-16N: Based on the F-16C/D Block 30 and used by the US Navy for adversary training; 22 one-seat F-16N and 4 two-seat TF-16N built
Block 40/42: Improved day-night/all-weather attack variant based on the Block 30/32 but compatible with night vision systems, the LANTIRN pod, and GPS weapons like JDAM, JSOW, and WCMD; 615 built
F-16CD/F-16DG
Night Falcons: Unofficial designations for the single-seat and two-seat Block 40/42 aircraft
Block 50/52: Introduced a new GPS/INS navigation system, updated engines, a helmet-mounted cueing system, and weapon system improvements
Block 50D/52D: Block 50/52 models adapted for Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) missions using Shrike or HARM missiles
F-16CJ/F-16DJ: Unofficial designations for the single-seat and two-seat Block 50D/52D aircraft
Block 50/52 Plus: Introduced conformal fuel tanks along the upper wing strakes and an enlarged spline for avionics; purchased by Greece, Poland, Pakistan, and Singapore
KF-16: F-16C/D Block 52 models purchased by South Korea and compatible with Harpoon missiles, built under license by Korean Aerospace Industries; 140 built
F-16I Sufa: Model for Israel based on the Block 50/52 Plus but with removable conformal fuel tanks and Israeli avionics; 102 to be built
F-16E/F: New production model incorporating conformal fuel tanks, an AESA radar, new engines, an enlarged spline for avionics, and other advanced upgrades, purchased by the United Arab Emirates
GF-16: Ground instruction model used to train maintenance personnel
F-16/101: Test aircraft modified from the first F-16 FSD airframe and used to evaluate the GE F101 engine for the production F-16
F-16 CCV: Control-Configured Vehicle modified from the YF-16 prototype and used to test advanced control systems; 1 converted
F-16 AFTI: Advanced Fighter Technology Integration aircraft built to expand on the F-16 CCV program and test a new digital flight control system as well as other advanced technologies like a voice controlled sytem and helmet-mounted targeting system, many of the systems tested have become standard on newer fighters; 1 converted from F-16 FSD airframe
F-16 Agile Falcon: Proposed low-cost version of the AFTI model featuring a larger wing and enhanced control systems; cancelled but later inspired Japan's F-2
NF-16D VISTA: Variable Stability Inflight Test Aircraft used to test advanced control systems
F-16 MATV: VISTA airframe modified with a Multi Axis Thrust Vectoring axisymmetric nozzle
F-16 SFW: Swept Forward Wing proposed to test forward-swept wing technology; not built in favor of the X-29
F-16XL or F-16E/F: Advanced test aircraft modified with a large cranked delta wing and developed as a tactical strike aircraft prototype, the enormous wing held 27 hardpoints and nearly doubled the payload of a standard F-16, the F-16E was to be a production single-seat model and the F-16F a two-seat model but the program was cancelled after the USAF selected the F-15E and the two prototypes were later transferred to NASA for drag-reduction research; 1 single-seat and 1 two-seat models converted from F-16 FSD airframes
F-16AT Falcon 21: Proposed low-cost alternative to the F-22 based on the F-16XL but with a more conventional wing
F-16X Falcon 2000: Proposed F-16 variant with a lengthened fuselage and wing similar to the F-22 to nearly double fuel capacity
F-16U: Early proposal to United Arab Emirates combining features of the F-16XL with the wing of the F-16X; cancelled in favor of the F-16E/F
F-16 ES: Enhanced Strategic model designed as an extended range F-16C/D with conformal tanks and an internal FLIR system to reduce drag, offered to Israel as an alternative to the F-15I and to the United Arab Emirates; 1 prototype converted from a Block 30 airframe
F-16 GCAS: Block 25 airframe modified to test Ground Collision Avoidance System technologies; 1 converted
F-16 LOAN: Low-Observable Asymmetric Nozzle demonstrator that tested a nozzle to reduce radar and infrared cross sections and improve maintenance; 1 converted from F-16C airframe to test technology for the Joint Strike Fighter
F-16IN: Proposed model for India's Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft contract featuring an AESA radar, infrared seach and track system, and electronic warfare systems; 18 would be built in the US and another 108 license built in India
FS-X or F-2: Fighter loosely based on the F-16 built by Mitsubishi for Japan

KNOWN COMBAT RECORD:
Iraq - Osirak nuclear reactor strike (Israel, 1981)
Lebanon Civil War (Israel, 1982)
Soviet-Afghan War - shot down 3-4 Su-22, 2 MiG-23, 1 Su-25, 1 An-26 (Pakistan, 1986-1988)
Iraq - Operation Desert Storm (USAF, 1991)
Iraq - Operation Northern Watch (USAF, 1991-2003)
Iraq - Operation Southern Watch (USAF, 1991-2003)
Venezuela Coup (Venezuela, 1992)
Bosnia - Operation Deliberate Force (USAF, Netherlands, 1995)
Kosovo - Operation Allied Force (USAF, 1999)
Kargil War (Pakistan, 1999)
Israeli-Palestinian conflict (Israel, 2000-present)
US Homeland Security - Operation Noble Eagle (USAF, 2001-present)
Afghanistan - Operation Enduring Freedom (USAF, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Norway, 2001-present)
shot down Indian Searcher-II UAV (Pakistan, 2002)
Iraq - Operation Iraqi Freedom (USAF, 2003-present)
Greece-Turkey skirmish (Greece, Turkey, 2006)
Second Lebanon War (Israel, 2006)
Syria - nuclear strike (Israel, 2007)

KNOWN OPERATORS: 
 Bahrain, Bahrain Amiri (Royal Bahraini Air Force)
Belgium, Belgishe Luchtmacht/Force Aérienne Belge (Belgian Air Force)
Chile, Fuerza Aérea de Chile (Chilean Air Force)
Denmark, Kongelige Danske Flyvevåbnet (Royal Danish Air Force)
Egypt, Al Quwwat al Jawwiya il Misriya (Egyptian Air Force)
Greece, Elliniki Polimiki Aeroporia (Hellenic Air Force)
Indonesia, Tentara Nasional Indonesia - Angkatan Udara (Indonesian Air Force)
Israel, Tsvah Haganah le Israel - Heyl Ha'Avir (Israeli Defence Force - Air Force)
Italy, Aeronautica Militare Italiana (Italian Air Force)
Jordan, Al Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Malakiya al-Urduniya (Royal Jordanian Air Force)
Morocco, Al Quwwat al Jawiyya al Malakiya Marakishiya (Royal Moroccan Air Force)
Netherlands, Koninklijke Luchmacht (Royal Netherlands Air Force)
Norway, Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret (Royal Norwegian Air Force)
Oman, Al Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Sultanat Oman (Royal Oman Air Force)
Pakistan, Pakistan Fiza'ya (Pakistani Air Force)
Poland, Polska Wojska Lotnicze i Obrony Powietrznej (Polish Air Defense and Aviation Force)
Portugal, Força Aérea Portuguesa (Portuguese Air Force)
Singapore (Republic of Singapore Air Force)
South Korea, Han-guk Kong Goon (Republic of Korea Air Force)
Taiwan, Chung-Kuo Kung Chuan (Republic of China Air Force)
Thailand, Kongtap Agard Thai (Royal Thai Air Force)
Turkey, Türk Hava Kuvvetleri (Turkish Air Force)
United Arab Emirates (United Arab Emirates Air Force)
United States (US Air Force)
United States (US Air Force Reserves)
United States (US Air National Guard)
United States (US Navy)
United States (NASA)
Venezuela, Fuerza Aérea Venezolana (Venezuelan Air Force)

Sebelumnya diposting pada 10 Juni 2008 di www.bluefame.com

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