Kamis, 24 Desember 2009

Douglas DC-8 Medium to Long-Range Jetliner







DESKRIPSI
:
Ketika Boeing mulai mengembangkan 707, Douglas terpacu untuk mengembangkan sebuah pesawat komersial bertenaga jet-nya sendiri karena takut kehilangan posisi pasar. Dimulai dengan sebuah “Program Kecelakaan” (Crash Program), Douglas berhasil menerbangkan DC-8 tiga tahun setelah program dimulai. Walaupun dari luar tampak similar dengan Boeing-707 dengan sebuah sayap terpasang-rendah tertekuk ke belakang dan empat mesin turbojet, DC-8 dilengkapi dengan inovasinya sendiri, termasuk fitur servisabilitas dan reliabilitas canggih.
Model produksi awal semuanya mempunyai dimensi dan berat similar, tetapi berbeda dalam pemasangan mesin, membuat keuntungan untuk pengembangan secara cepat dalam teknik propulsi. Sementara DC-8 Seri 10 dan 20 dinuat untuk keperluan penerbangan domestik, Seri 30 dibuat untuk jarak terbang interkontinental. Sedangkan Seri 50 dikenalkan lay-out kabin baru yang memungkinkan jumlah penumpang yang lebih banyak, dan seri ini juga merupakan model varian kargo built-in yang pertama.
Akan tetapi, varian produksi utama pesawat ini adalah seri Super 60 yang diperkenalkan pada 1967. Seri ini terdiri dari DC-8 Super 61 yang diperpanjang yang mampu mengangkut 29 penumpang, serta pesawat D8 Super 62 dan DC-8 Super 63 jarak-jauh dengan bodi pesawat yang diperpanjang. Ketika efesiensi bahan bakar dan kebisingan menjadi perhatian utama selama tahun 1970an, banyak model pesawat ini selanjutnya yang dilengkapi dengan mesin turbofan canggih baru dan didesain ulang seperti Super 71, Super 72, dan Super 73

HISTORY:
First Flight: (DC-8-10) 30 May 1958; (DC-8-71) April 1982; (DC-8-72) 5 December 1981; (DC-8-73) 4 March 1982
Service Entry: September 1959 (with Delta Airlines and United Airlines)

CREW: 3 flight crew

PASSENGERS: (DC-8-10) 179; (DC-8-50) 189; (DC-8-63) 259

AIRFOIL SECTIONS:
Wing Root: DSMA-277/-280
Wing Tip: DSMA-281

DIMENSIONS:
Length: (DC-8-10) 150.50 ft (45.90 m); (DC-8-62) 157.42 ft (47.97 m); (DC-8-63) 187.42 ft (57.12 m)
Wingspan: (DC-8-10) 148.42 ft (45.24 m); (DC-8-62) 154.42 ft (47.07 m)
Height: 42.42 ft (12.93 m)
Wing Area: 2,927 ft2 (271.92 m2)
Canard Area: not applicable

WEIGHTS:
Empty: (DC-8-63) 153,750 lb (69,740 kg); (DC-8-73) 166,500 lb (75,500 kg)
Typical Load: unknown
Max Takeoff: (DC-8-63) 350,000 lb (158,760 kg); (DC-8-73) 355,000 lb (161,025 kg)
Fuel Capacity: internal: unknown; external: not applicable
Max Payload: (DC-8-10) 34,360 lb (15,585 kg); (DC-8-63F/CF) 116,000 lb (52.615 kg); (DC-8-73) 105,820 lb (48,000 kg)

PROPULSION:
Powerplant: (DC-8-10) four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-6 turbojets; (DC-8-30) four Pratt & Whitney JT4A-9 turbojets; (DC-8-40) four Rolls-Royce Conway 509 turbofans; (DC-8-63) four Pratt & Whitney JT3D-7 turbofans
(DC-8-73) four General Electric/SNECMA CFM56-2-C1 turbofans
Thrust: (DC-8-10) 54,000 lb (240.21 kN); (DC-8-30) 67,200 lb (298.93 kN); (DC-8-40) 70,000 lb (311.39 kN); (DC-8-63) 76,000 lb (338.08 kN); (DC-8-73) 88,000 lb (391.46 kN)

PERFORMANCE:
Max Level Speed: at altitude: 600 mph (965 km/h); at sea level: unknown
cruise speed: 525 mph (840 km/h)
Initial Climb Rate: unknown
Service Ceiling: unknown
Range: (DC-8-10) 4,160 nm (7,710 km); (DC-8-63) 3,905 nm (7,240 km); (DC-8-73) 4,830 nm (8,950 km)
g-Limits: unknown

KNOWN VARIANTS:
DC-8 Series 10: Initial production model; 2 built
DC-8 Series 20: Similar to Series 10 but with more powerful engines for operation in hot or high-altitude conditions; 49 built
DC-8 Series 30: Long-range model and first designed for intercontinental operations; 52 built
DC-8 Series 40: Similar to Series 30 but equipped with more powerful Rolls-Royce engines; 29 built
DC-8 Series 50: Improved model with more powerful engines and revised cabin layout allowing 10 additional passengers to be seated, also featured new wing leading edge that reduced drag improving speed and range; 162 built
DC-8AF Jet Traders: Freighter model of Series 50
DC-8CF Jet Traders: Convertible cargo/passenger model of Series 50
DC-8 Super 60: Generic designation for three new models described below, all three available in passenger only (DC-8-6_), cargo only (DC-8-6_F), or combination cargo/passenger (DC-8-6_CF) variants; 262 built
DC-8 Super 61: Enlarged model with extended fuselage for up to 259 passengers
DC-8 Super 62: Long-range model with lengthened fuselage for greater fuel capacity but still carrying 189 passengers, also featured larger wingspan
DC-8 Super 63: Final production model combining enlarged fuselage of the Super 61 with new wing and other aerodynamic improvements of the Super 62
DC-8 Super 71: Super 61 airframes equipped with new more fuel efficient GE/SNECMA turbofans allowing much improved range and meeting noise regulations
DC-8 Super 72: Super 62 airframes equipped with new engines
DC-8 Super 73: Super 63 airframes equipped with new engines
EC-24 Former United Airlines DC-8-54F modified to simulate enemy communications and control systems and used by the US Navy; 1 converted

KNOWN OPERATORS:
Civil:
Absa Cargo
AECA
Aeral
Aero del Peru
Aeromar Airlines
Aéromaritime
Aeromexico
Aeronaves del Peru
Aero Peru
Aerouruguay
Aer Turas Teoranta
Affretair
African Air Charter
African International Airways
Agro Air International
Air Afrique
Air Algerie
Airborne Express
Air Canada
Air Cargo Spain
Air d'Evasions
Air Evasion
Air France
Air Gabon
Air Gabon Cargo
Air India
Airlift International
Air New Zealand
Air Outre Mer (AOM)
Air Spain
Air Sweden
Air Transport International (ATI)
Air Zaire
Alitalia
Americana Colombia
American International
American Jet Industries
Analinda Airlines
Andes Airlines
Apisa Air Cargo
Arax Airlines
ARCA Colombia
Arnaflug
Arrow Air
ATC Colombia
Aviaco
Batch Air
Bax Global
Braniff Airways
Buffalo Airways
Burlington Air Express
Cam Air International
Cameroon Airlines
Canarias Cargo
Capitol Air International
Cargo Lion
Cargolux
CargOman
Cargosur
Concord International
Conner Air Lines
Continental Cargo Airlines
Contract Cargo Airlines
Cougar Air Cargo International
CP Air
CTA Espana
Cubana
Cygnus Air
Cyprus Airways
Delta Airlines
Eagle Air
Eastern Airlines
Emery Worldwide Airlines
Evergreen International Airlines
Excelair
Faucett Peru
Fine Air
Florida West International Airlines
Flying Tiger Line
Fuerza Aerea del Peru
Garuda
German Cargo
IAS Cargo Airlines
Iberia
Icelandair
Imperial Airlines
Interamericana de Aviacion
Intercontinental Airlines
Hawaiian Air
Japan Air Lines
Jet Aviation
Jet Fret
Kalitta American International
Kitty Hawk International
KLM - Royal Dutch Airlines
LAC Colombia
Lan Chile
Liberia World Airlines
Lignes Aeriennes Congolaises
Loftleidir
Maldives International
MAS Air Cargo
Million Air
Minerve
MK Airlines
MK Cargo
Murray Air
Nationair Canada
National Airlines
Omega Air
Overseas International Airways
Panair do Brazil
Pan American World Airways (Pan Am)
Philippine Airlines
Point Air Mulhouse
Pomair Ostend
Quebecair
Response Air
SAS Scandanavian Airlines
Saudia
Scanair
Seaboard World
Secmafair Aviation
Southern Air Transport
Spantax
Swissair
Summit Philippines
Surinam Airways
Tampa Colombia
Thai International
TMC Airlines
TPI International Airways
Trabajos Aereos y Enlaces (TAE)
Trafe
Transafrik
Transamerica
Trans Canada
Trans Caribbean
Trans Continental Airlines
Trans International
Transmeridian Air Cargo
Transportes Charter do Brasil
Transports Aériens Intercontinentaux (TAI)
Transvalair
Union Aéromaritime de Transport (UAT)
United African Airlines
United Air Carriers
United Airlines
United Parcel Service (UPS)
UTA
Varig
Viasa
Wien Air Alaska
World Airways
Zaire International Cargo
Zambia Airways
Zantop International Airlines
Zuliana de Aviacion

Government/Military:
France
Gabon
Spain
Togo
US Navy


Diterjemahkan secara bebas dari: www.fas.org

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