Rabu, 04 Februari 2009

Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-27; 1970



Role: Attack aircraft
Manufacturer: Mikoyan OKB; Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
First flight: 20 August 1970
Introduced: 1975
Retired: 1990s (Russia)
Status: In service with foreign users
Primary users: Soviet Air Force; Indian Air Force;
Produced: 1970 to 1986
Number built: 1075 including licensed production
Developed from: Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23



Mikoyan MiG-27 (Rusia: Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-27) (NATO "Flogger-D/J") adalah pesawat “ground-attack”, yang awalnya dikembangkan oleh biro desain Mikoyan di Uni Soviet dan kemudian diproduksi di bawah lisensi di India oleh Hindustan aeronautika sebagai Bahadur ( "Berani"). Pesawat ini dikembangkan berdasarkan pada Mikoyan-Gurevich Pesawat Tempur MiG-23, tapi dioptimalkan untuk peran “ground-attack.


Design and development

MiG-27 memakai sebagian airframe dasar dari MiG-23, namun dengan modifikasi hidung,dengan julukan "Utkonos" ("platypus") dalam bahasa Rusia. Memakai sistem seperti pada MiG-23B tanpa radar dengan hidung yang mengarah ke bawah untuk meningkatkan visibilitas pilot, serta memakai pencari jarak dan pencari target laser. Pilot uji menyebut sistem itu dengan nama "Balkon" karena tingkat visibiltas frontal dari kokpit. Tambahan lapis baja pada kokpit dipasang, bersama dengan sistem navigasi/serang baru. Karena MiG-27 dimaksudkan untuk misi di ketinggian rendah, maka intake variabel dan exhaust nozzles telah ditiadakan agar lebih sederhana, mengurangi berat, serta untuk kebutuhan pemeliharaan. Pesawat terbang juga lebih besar, dan mempunyai roda yang kokoh agar dapat dioperasikan dari landasan yang tidak memadai.



Operational history


Sri Lanka

MiG-27 pesawat mulai beroperasi untuk AU Sri Lanka pada tahun 2000. Sejak itu, mereka terlibat dalam operasi regular, pengeboman sasaran strategis dan memberikan dukungan serangan udara dekat. Pada bulan Agustus 2000, sebuah MiG-27 mengalami kecelakaan di dekat bandara internasional Kolombo, menewaskan pilot Ukraina-nya. Pada bulan Juli 2001, sebuah MiG-27 hancur di pangkalan udara akibat serangan oleh LTTE. MiG-27 lain mengalami kecelakaan di tengah laut di dekat bandara Colombo Juni 2004. Pada tanggal 30 April 2007, LTTE menyatakan satu MiG-27 Sri Lanka tertembak dan jatuh, namun para pejabat Sri Lanka menyangkalnya.


India

Pada tanggal 27 Mei 1999, selama Perang Kargil, satu MiG-27 India mengalami kebakaran mesin ketika mengebom Pakistan. Pilot, Letnan Penerbangan Nachi Keta memakai kursi lontar dan kemudian menjadi tawanan Pakistan. Sebuah MiG-21 ditembak jatuh oleh roket permukaan-ke-udara Pakistan ketika melakukan pencarian terhadap Letnan Penerbangan Nachi Keta, pilot pun terbunuh. Pejabat Pakistan mengklaim kedua kejadian tersebut


Specifications (MiG-27K)

General characteristics
Crew: One
Length: 17.1 m (56 ft)
Wingspan: * Spread: 13.8 m (45 ft 3 in)
Swept: 7.4 m (24 ft 3 in)
Height: 5 m (16 ft 5 in)
Wing area: * Spread: 37.35 m² (402.0 ft²)
Swept: 34.16 m² (367.7 ft²)
Empty weight: 11,908 kg (26,252 lb)
Loaded weight: 18,100 kg (39,900 lb)
Max takeoff weight: 20,670 kg (45,570 lb)
Powerplant: 1× Khatchaturov R-29-300 afterburning turbojet
Dry thrust: 81 kN dry (18,300 lbf)
Thrust with afterburner: 123 kN (27,600 lbf)

Performance
Maximum speed:
Sea level: Mach 1.10 (1,350 km/h, 839 mph)
at altitude: Mach 1.77 (1,885 km/h at 8,000 m, 1,170 mph at 26,000 ft
Range: 780 km (480 mi) combat, 2,500 km (1,550 mi) ferry
Service ceiling 14,000 m (45,900 ft)
Rate of climb: 200 m/s (39,400 ft/min)
Wing loading: 605 kg/m² (123 lb/ft²)
Thrust/weight: 0.62

Armament
1x GSh-6-30 30 mm cannon with 260-300 rounds
One centerline, four fuselage, and two wing glove pylons for a total of 4,000 kg (8,800 lb) of stores, including general-purpose bombs, rocket pods, SPPU-22 and SPPU-6 gun pods, and various guided air-to-surface missiles.


Variants


Flogger-D

MiG-27. This was the first MiG-27, and it was the first in the Flogger family to have a canopy without the central frame, suggesting that the ejection seat was designed to directly break through the transparency. The dielectric head above the pylon on the MiG-23 was used on the MiG-27 to house electro-optical and radio-frequency gear instead. It was armed with a Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-6-23M Gatling gun.
MiG-27D. The nuclear strike variant of MiG-27, with a PSBN-6S navigation/attack system specially designed for the mission. 560 MiG-27D were built from 1973 - 1977 and they were on permanent stand-by alert basis like the FB-111A of the United States Air Force.


Flogger-J

MiG-27M. This model was an upgrade of the 'Flogger-D', with the electro-optical and radio-frequency heads above the glove pylons deleted. It was first armed with the GSh-6-23M Gatling gun, but this was later replaced by a new 30 mm GSh-6-30 six-barrel cannon with 260 rounds of ammunition in a fuselage gondola. It also received much-improved electronic countermeasure (ECM) systems, and a new PrNK-23K nav/attack system providing automatic flight control, gun firing, and weapons release. However, this modification was not very successful because of the heavy recoil from the new cannon, and bursts longer than two or three seconds often led to permanent damage of the airframe. Test pilot V. N.Kondaurov described the first firing of the GSh-6-30А: "As I imposed the central mark on the air target and pressed the trigger to shoot, I heard such noise that I involuntarily drew my hand aside. The whole plane began to vibrate from the shooting and had almost stopped from the strong recoil of the gun. The pilotless target, which was just making a turn ahead of me, was literally disintegrating into pieces. I have hardly come to my senses from unexpectedness and admiration: This is a calibre! Such a beast! If you hit something — it will not be little [damaged]." A total of 150 MiG-27M were built from 1978 to 1983.
MiG-27L. This was an export variant of the MiG-27M provided in 1986 to India in knock-down kits for license-assembly. Same as MiG-27M except the undernose fairing for the infra-red search and track (IRST) sensor has a single window instead of several like the one on the original MiG-27M. A total of 200 were assembled by India.
MiG-27H. This was a 1988 indigenous Indian upgrade of its license-assembled MiG-27L with French avionics, which provides the same level of performance but with much reduced size and weight. The space saved is used to house the French Agave radar. At least 165 were converted from MiG-27Ls.


Flogger J-2


MiG-27K. The MiG-27K was the final Soviet version, which added a laser designator and compatibility with TV-guided electro-optical weapons. Originally armed with the GSh-6-23M gun, but this was soon replaced with the GSh-6-30 cannon. Around 200 were built.



0 komentar:

Poskan Komentar

Twitter Delicious Facebook Digg Stumbleupon Favorites More

 
Design by Free WordPress Themes | Bloggerized by Lasantha - Premium Blogger Themes | coupon codes