Jumat, 25 Desember 2009

Douglas DC-9, Short to Medium-Range Jetliner



Douglas mulai mengembangkan DC-9 pada akhir tahun 1950-an sebagai pesawat bertenaga-jet jarak pendek untuk melengkapi saudaranya yang lebih besar DC-8. DC-9 merupakan desain Amerika pertama yang memiliki mesin kembar yang dipasang di bagian ekor, yang konsepnya dipinjam dari pesawat Caravelle Perancis. Konfigurasi ini merupakan layout tradisional dengan sebuah bodi pesawat berbentuk tabung yang dipasangi dengan sayap tertekuk yang dipasang rendah. Salah satu karakteristik yang tidak biasa adalah pengenalan dari ekor-T yang dipaksakan karena pilihan penempatan mesin.

DC-9 Seri 10 berkapasitas 80-90 penumpang adalah yang pertama beroperasi, tetapi dari desain dasar ini telah ditawarkan sejumlah variasi yang dimungkinkan dengan penambahan plugs bodi pesawat untuk meningkatkan beban penumpang atau bahan bakar. Varian Seri 50 terakhir, misalnya, lebih panjang 23 ft (7 m) daripada versi asli dan dapat mengangkut hingga 139 penumpang. Selain itu, varian kargo, convertible, dan gabungan penumpang-kargo dikembangkan untuk menarik berbagai operator. Program ini juga menerima tambahan pesanan besar ketika US Air Force dan US Navy membeli varian kargo dan transport yang dikenal sebagai C-9. Varian yang jauh lebih besar dan diganti mesinnya, dikenal sebagai DC-9 Super 80, muncul pada awal tahun 1980-an namun telah diganti namanya menjadi MD-80 setelah merger McDonnell Douglas.

Antara 1965 dan 1982, total 976 DC-9 dibuat, dan masih beroperasi hingga saat ini, dan telah diupgrade untuk memenuhi peraturan tentang kebisingan yang baru.




HISTORY:
First Flight: 25 February 1965
Service Entry: 8 December 1965 (with Delta Airlines)

CREW: 2 flight crew

PASSENGERS:
(DC-9-10) 80 in two classes, 90 in one class
(DC-9-30) 105 in two classes, 119 in one class
(DC-9-40) 125 to 132
(DC-9-50) up to 139

ESTIMATED COST: unknown

AIRFOIL SECTIONS:
Wing Root: DSMA-433/-434A
Wing Tip: DSMA-435A/-436A

DIMENSIONS:
Length: (DC-9-10) 104.42 ft (31.86 m); (DC-9-30) 119.33 ft (36.41 m); (DC-9-40) 125.58 ft (38.31 m); (DC-9-50) 133.50 ft (40.73 m)
Wingspan: (DC-9-10) 89.42 ft (27.28 m); (DC-9-20) 93.32 ft (28.47 m)
Height: 27.5 ft (8.38 m)
Wing Area: 1,000.7 ft2 (92.97 m2)
Canard Area: not applicable

WEIGHTS:
Empty: (DC-9-30) 57,190 lb (25,940 kg); (DC-9-50) 61,880 lb (28,070 kg)
Typical Load: unknown
Max Takeoff: (DC-9-10) 90,700 lb (41,180 kg); (DC-9-20) 98,000 lb (44,490 kg)
(DC-9-30) 110,000 lb (49,940 kg); (DC-9-40) 114,000 lb (51,755 kg); (DC-9-50) 121,000 lb (54,935 kg)
Fuel Capacity: internal: (DC-9-10) 3,695 gal (13,980 L); (DC-9-20) 3,680 gal (13,925 L)
(DC-9-50) 4,260 gal (16,120 L); external: not applicable
Max Payload: (DC-9-30) 31,125 lb (14,120 kg)

PROPULSION:
Powerplant: (DC-9-10) two Pratt & Whitney JT8D-7 turbofans; (DC-9-20) two Pratt & Whitney JT8D-9 turbofans; (DC-9-30) two Pratt & Whitney JT8D-15 turbofans; (DC-9-50) two Pratt & Whitney JT8D-17 turbofans
Thrust: (DC-9-10) 28,000 lb (124.56 kN); (DC-9-20) 30,000 lb (133.45 kN); (DC-9-30) 31,000 lb (137.90 kN); (DC-9-50) 32,000 lb (142.35 kN)

PERFORMANCE:
Max Level Speed: at altitude: unknown; at sea level: unknown
cruise speed: (DC-9-10) 560 mph (905 km/h); (DC-9-20) 555 mph (895 km/h); (DC-9-30) 570 mph (915 km/h); (DC-9-40) 560 mph (905 km/h); (DC-9-50) 560 mph (905 km/h)
Initial Climb Rate: unknown
Service Ceiling: unknown
Range: (DC-9-10) 1,100 nm (2,035 km); (DC-9-20) 1,605 nm (2,975 km); (DC-9-30) 1,420 nm (2,630 km); (DC-9-40) 1,460 nm (2,710 km); (DC-9-50) 1,420 nm (2,630 km)
g-Limits: unknown

KNOWN VARIANTS:
DC-9 Series 10: Initial production model
DC-9 Series 15: Same as DC-9-10 but with more powerful engines for operation at higher gross weights
DC-9 Series 20: Model with larger wingspan and more powerful engines for operation in hot/high environments; 147 Series 10, 15 and 20 airframes built
DC-9 Series 30: Enlarged version with lengthened fuselage for up to 119 passengers and larger sing of Series 20 plus more powerful engines, available in freighter (F), convertible (CF) and passenger/freight (RC) models; 621 built
DC-9 Series 40: Same as Series 30 but with lengthened fuselage for up to 132 passengers and new engines, available in freighter (F), convertible (CF) and passenger/freight (RC) models; 71 built
DC-9 Series 50: Same as Series 30 but with lengthened fuselage and revised cabin layout for up to 139 passngers and new engines, available in freighter (F), convertible (CF) and passenger/freight (RC) models; 96 built
DC-9 Super 80: Lengthened model with more fuel efficient engines, later redesignated the MD-80
DC-9 Super 90: Updated version of the MD-80, later redesignated the MD-90
C-9A Nightingale: Aeromedical transport based on DC-9 Series 30 and used by US Air Force; 21 built
C-9B Skytrain II: Logistics transport based on Series 30 and Series 40 built for US Navy and US Marines; 17 built
VC-9: US Air Force VIP transport based on DC-9 Series 30; 3 built

KNOWN OPERATORS:
Civil:
1Time
ABX Air
ADC Airlines
Adria
Aero California
Aerocaribe
Aerolineas Internacionales
Aeromexico
Aeropostal
Aeroquetzal
Aerorepublica Colombia
Air Aruba
Airborne Express
Air Canada
Air Djibouti
Airtran Airways
Air Transport International (ATI)
Air West
Alitalia
Allegheny Airlines
Allegiant Air
Allegro Air
ALM
Aserca
Austral
Avensa
Aviaco
Aviacsa
Avioimpex
Bellview Airlines
Cebu Pacific Air
Championship Airways
Continental Airlines
Delta Airlines
DHL
Dinar Lineas Aereas
Dominicana
Eastern Airlines
Egyptair
Emery Worldwide
Evergreen International Airlines
Express One International
Finnair
Garuda Indonesia
Ghana Airways
Hawaiian Air
Hughes Airwest
Hunair
Iberia
Inex Adria
Intercontinental Colombia
Itavia
Japan Air System
JAT Yugoslav Airlines
Kitty Hawk Air Cargo
Laser
Legend Airlines
MAT Macedonian Airlines
Merpati
Midway Airlines
Midwest Express
Million Air
North Central Airlines
Northwest Airlines
Ozark Airlines
Reliant Airlines
Ryan International Airlines
SAS Scandanavian Airlines
Servivensa
Setra
Sosolito
Southern Airways
Southwest Airlines
Spantax
Spirit Airlines
Sportsflight Air
Sun Air
Sun Jet International Airlines
Surinam Airways
Taesa
Texas International
THY Turkish Airlines
Toa Domestic Airlines (TDA)
Trans World Airlines (TWA)
US Airways
USA Jet Airlines
Valujet
Viasa
West Coast Airlines
Wetrafa Airlines
Zuliana Airlines

Government/Military:
Italy
Kuwait
US Air Force
US Marines
US Navy


Diterjemahkan secara bebas dari: www.fas.org

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